This course focuses on the battle between barbarian invaders, established communities, and new religions in the Middle Ages. What became Spain and Portugal were battlegrounds between faiths old and new, a clash of civilizations between Christianity, Judaism, and Islam that would inform future global conflicts. We explore the history of this confrontation at the crossroad of civilizations—between East and West, Africa and Europe—and its effect on our worldview today. A common culture was forged in science, mathematics, music, literature, philosophy, and mysticism, a shared legacy shaping world history and the current world order. Part of the 'Geopolitics and Culture' Focus Cluster.